Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan Tusi born in year 570 in Tus, died 653 in Baghdad, Khajeh Nasir Uddin Tusi. He was Poet, Philosopher, Theologian, Faqih, Astronomer, Scientist, Thinkers, Iranian mathematician and astronomer of Seventh century. His sobriquet is “Abu Ja’far” and he was famous for such titles: “Nasir Uddin”, “researcher Tusi”, “Master of human ” and “eunuch”.
He has revived again Mashaei philosophy tradition that was ebbing after Ibn Sina. He was gathered set of votes and Shiite theological views in the book of “Tajrid Alatqad” (Prophethood Subject ). He made Maraqeh Observatory and made a library near that and it was about forty thousand book covers inside this library. He was nurturing students (Like Qutb al-Din Shirazi) and gathering Iranian scientists was the factor of transfer civilization and Iran Knowledge before the Mongol to the future.
He is one of the developers of trigonometry. In the 16th century, his Trigonometry books were translated into French.
Khajeh Nasir Uddin Tusi is one of the best known and most influential Figures in the history of currents of the Islamic intellectual. He learned religious and rational sciences under the opinion of his father and logic and natural the wisdom under the opinion of his uncle. He completed his studies in Neyshabur. He was found famous as an outstanding scientist in Neyshahbur either. He was busy with his scientific works near Nasereddin and Mohtasham Quhistan at the time of Mongol invasion to Iran. In this time, he wrote Naseri Ethics. After some time, he moved to the Ismailis in the castle of Alamut, but after the onslaught of Mongol Hulegu and end the reign of the Ismailis Hulegu constructed Nasir Uddin as his minister and consultant, as far as he helped Hulegu to the overthrow of the Abbasid and strike to Baghdad.
Khajeh Nasiroddin Tusi was buried in Kazemain.
The birthplace and birth
There is conflict about birth place of Khajeh Nasir Uddin Tusi, some books and sources know his father as the elders and scholars of Qom but in some sources knows Jahroud village of Saveh as the birth place of him that he went with his family for pilgrimage of the Eighth Shi’a Imam to Mashhad and after pilgrimage, when they came back because of the illness of his spouse, they took up house in one of the Neighbourhood’s of Tus. He was born there when his family was living there. His father named him Mohammad.
The days of childhood and adolescence of Khajeh Nasir Uddin Tusi was spent in Tus. He was in these days after reading and writing, Quran reading, Arabic, and Persian rules taught meanings and express and hadith near his father. After that base on the speaking of his father he went near his uncle that he was the famous scientists in mathematics, Hekmat, and logic, so he paid to learn these sciences. Then with the guide of his father he went to one of the famous scholars in mathematics and studied but a little time after that he decided to have a trip. The people say he told to his father that I taught to whatever that I know and he asks me (father) something that I have no answer for them!
After a while, the uncle of his father whom he had special expertise in the science of men, Elements, and Hadith came to the Tus and Khajeh studied many things from him. Though he couldn’t learn any new thing from him. But his lots of intelligence and talent provoked amazement and wonder of the master’s in the way that he recommended him for improved his science immigrate to the Neishabur.He put the clothes of religious scholars by the hands of his professor. After that, he was honored with the title of Nasir Uddin by his professor. After that Khajeh went to the Neishabur and with the recommendation of the uncle of his father went to the Serajyeh school and for the period of a year educated near Serajedin Qomry that he was one of the great masters of the Fiqh course and principles in that school. After that in Presence of professor Fariduddin Damad, one of the students of (Imam Fakhre Razi) learns the book of “Allusions of Ibn Sina”. After topics, numerous scientific of Fariduddin with Khajeh, his interest, and extraordinary talent, appeared in compare with gaining knowledge and Fariduddin introduce him to one of the students of Fakhreh Razi. Thus he could learn the book of “Law of Ibn Sina” completely and well near “Qotbeddin Mesry Shafi’I”. In addition to the above books, he gets the benefit of the presence famous mystic of that land “Attar Neyshabouri” (died 627). Khajeh in which was the owner of the valuable Sciences and was always looking to earn more Science and Technology, after studying with Neishabur scientists went to the Rey and be familiar with the great scientist “Burhanuddin Qazvini”. After that, he decided to went to Isfahan, but in the middle of the way after getting familiar with “Meysam Bin Ali Meysam Bohrani” with his invitation and with the intent of using of Isfahani Khajeh lesson went to the Qom.
After Qom Kahejeh went to the Isfahan and then went to the Iraq. He learned Fiqh from the presence of the Edris and Zohre Heli student Mesry Mazani and in the year of 619 AH. received permission of telling the story from his master. As written for the time Khajeh learned Fiqh from Hilli and in front of Hilli learned Hekmat from Khajeh. “Kamaloddin Mosli” was living in Iraq Mosel city was one of the other science that khajeh learned Astronomy and mathematics from him, And so the Tusi researcher passed the education time. After many years being far from the home and family, he decided to went to the Khorasan.
Influences and exclusively monuments
A 60 kilometers crater in the Southern Hemisphere of the Moon has been named Khajeh Nasir Uddin Tusi. Also, an asteroid was discovered by Russian astronomer in 1979 that called Khajeh Nasir Uddin Tusi.
Tehran university and also Shamkhay Observatory in Azerbaijan has the name of Khajeh Nasir Uddin Tusi.
In 2013 ad. Google base, on the occasion of 812 years of Birth of Khajeh Nasir Uddin Tusi put a picture of him on the website and it was accessible in The Arabian countries. Base on the B.B.C. This site emphasized that he had Iranian ancestry that has the reflections in the Arabic countries.
In Iran fifth of March is the day of birth of Khajeh Nasir Uddin Tusi called engineer day.
His life was founded by two ethical and scientific goals. Khajeh Nasir Uddin Tusi in most fields of science and philosophy has writings of treatises and compilations that most of them are in the Arabic language. But 25 percent of his writings are in the Persian language. Nasir Uddin, unlike Ibn Sina, didn’t try to translate the Arabic words to Persian and change the Arabic expressions to the Persian expression and used common words of his time for writing his Persian effects. The most famous effects of him are contained: “Asas Al Eqtebas” and “Akhlaqe Naseri”.